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Everyone knows this wonderful wild berry, distinguished by its original taste and usefulness. And now we can pamper ourselves with garden blackberries, which are distinguished by the absence of thorns on the shoots, and its berries are large and sweet.
- Blackberry classification
- Growing on a trellis
- Top dressing
- Pests and diseases
All blackberry varieties (over 300) are divided into 3 groups:
- kumanika - erect (the most common);
- semi-creeping (rare);
- dewdrop - creeping on the ground.
Growing on a trellis
Since this is a rather rare plant in our garden plots, a reasonable question arises - how to care for blackberries. First, it will be very convenient to lift the blackberries up on the trellises, like grapes.
This will save space, the plant will receive enough sun and air, the berries will be able to fully ripen, and they can be easily harvested (blackberries bear fruit not at once, but for a month and a half), and young shoots will be able to spread freely along the ground. They are often attached to a fan-shaped trellis. Optionally, you can tie the bush to a pole or pipe.
The plant loves lighted areas. Feels good in partial shade, but the ripening period of berries in this case lengthens by 5-7 days, they become smaller and lose their taste.
Blackberries are drought-resistant, since their roots are located at a considerable depth.
During flowering and ripening of berries, it requires watering. But do not overdo it: excessively moist soil can cause the death of the bush.
In the spring, before the buds swell, it is necessary to do formative pruning: remove frozen, dried, diseased, underdeveloped shoots and shorten too long ones.
4-6 shoots should be left on one bush. It is advisable to trim the tops off to form a compact bush. It has been noticed that with strong pruning, the berries become larger.
In summer, pinch the tops and remove excess young shoots. In the fall, the sprouted shoots are cut off.
Many gardeners are frightened by the low frost resistance of this garden culture, but if you know how to care for blackberries in the autumn-winter period, then it will delight you with a bountiful harvest.
It should be noted that the dew grass does not tolerate winter well, and the kumanika can withstand frosts of twenty degrees. But still it is better to cover any blackberries for the winter.
Most varieties are bent to the ground, and if you have erect blackberries, then they are tilted gradually as they grow, as if accustoming them. Covering is used for particularly sensitive varieties. Most often with plastic wrap, but you can use leaves or spruce branches. It is advisable to cover it with snow on top. If the plant is not prepared for winter, then the adult bush will not die, but the ground part may freeze slightly, which will undoubtedly affect fruiting.
The plant propagates with seeds, green and root cuttings, rooted shoots and dividing the bush.
- Blackberries are propagated by seeds when new varieties are developed.
- Cuttings for propagation are taken 5-7 centimeters long and planted in spring or autumn in fertilized soil, deepening by two-thirds. If you decide to root the shoot, then sprinkle it with earth at the end of summer. Transplant to a permanent place in the spring.
It is advisable to plant a blackberry in a place that is well lit and protected from the winds. Planting is best done in the spring to prevent freezing.
The plant prefers slightly acidic or neutral soil. Do not use limestone soil for planting.
First, dig holes to a depth of 45-50 centimeters. Fertilizers mixed with soil are placed on the bottom: rotted manure or compost (5-6 kilograms), potash fertilizers (45-50 grams) and superphosphate (130-150 grams). Then a blackberry bush is planted so that the root collar is 2-3 centimeters below the soil level. Plants are watered, mulched and pruned, leaving 20-30 centimeters.
Plants are planted in rows. Erect bushes are placed at a distance of 0.9-1 meter, row spacing - up to 2 meters. A distance of 2.5 meters is left between creeping plants.
In one place, blackberries can bear fruit for 12-15 years.
To obtain a bountiful harvest of berries, the plant needs feeding. An excellent result can be obtained with the early spring mulching of the soil with a layer of 5 centimeters. For mulch, they take rotted manure or compost. You can also add urea or ammonium nitrate.
But keep in mind that 2 - 3 years after planting, blackberries are not fertilized.
Pests and diseases
Blackberries are resistant to pests and diseases. Sometimes raspberry beetles can attack it. To prevent this from happening, try to pick ripe berries in time. With a lack of iron and magnesium, chlorosis develops.
Berries ripen at the end of summer. Collect them in several steps.
If you take care of the blackberry and take proper care of it, then it will certainly delight you with an abundant tasty harvest.